Các thuật ngữ trong sưu tầm tiền (sưu tầm tư liệu)

Chủ đề thuộc danh mục 'Tư liệu tham khảo' được đăng bởi youngboss1vn, 3/7/12.

  1. youngboss1vn

    youngboss1vn Admin

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    Grading abbreviations: P(Poor), FR(Fair), G(good), VG(very good), F(fine), VF(very fine),
    XF(extremely fine), AU(about uncirculated), UNC(uncirculated). Also the following
    in-between grading abbreviations are used: aXF(about extremely fine) - lowercase "a" in front
    of any grade means that the grade almost/nearly meets the standard. VF-XF - means that the
    grade is somewhere between VF and XF. VF+ means that the grade is somehow better than VF,
    but not as good as VF-XF or aXF. UNC- (uncirculated minus) means that the paper note is
    uncirculated, but has some very slight fold which is so insignificant that it might as well be
    called as UNC, but not AU-UNC or AU.

    Other abbreviations: PNL / UNL (Pick not listed / not listed in a catalogue).
    NIC - not listed in any catalogue. ND - no date printed on the banknote. NFS -
    Not For Sale. Wmk - watermark. Ph - pinholes. Ch - centerhole. Et - edge tears.
    St - stains. Wst - weak stains. Scs - small coffee/tea stains. Rs - rust spots. Sd -
    soiled. Fx - foxing. Cnk - chunk. Cnr - corner. Nh - No holes. Nt - No tears. Obv -
    obverse / front. Rev - reverse / back. Pch - punchhole. KGV - King George V.
    KGVI - King George VI. QEII - Queen Elisabeth II (United Kingdom).
    *BDN* - birth day notes. OVD - Optically Variable Device (hologram, kinegram).
    Grading Guide - definition of terms
    UNCIRCULATED: UNC A perfectly preserved note, never mishandled by the issuing authority, a bank teller, the public
    or a collector. Paper is clean and firm, without discoloration. Corners are sharp and square, without any evidence of
    rounding. An uncirculated note will have its original, natural sheen.
    NOTE: Some note issues are most often available with slight evidence of very light counting folds which do not "break"
    the paper. Also French-printed notes usually have a slight ripple in the paper. Many collectors and dealers refer to
    such notes as AU-UNC.
    ABOUT UNCIRCULATED: AU A virtually perfect note, with some minor handling. May show very slight evidence of bank
    counting folds at a corner or one light fold through the center, but not both. An AU note can not be creased, a crease
    being a hard fold which has usually "broken" the surface of the note. Paper is clean and bright with original sheen.
    Corners are not rounded.
    EXTREMELY FINE: EF(XF) A very attractive note, with light handling. May have a maximum of three light folds or
    one strong crease. Paper is clean and bright with original sheen. Corners may show only the slightest evidence of
    rounding. There may also be the slightest sign of wear where a fold meets the edge.
    VERY FINE: VF An attractive note, but with more evidence of handling and wear. May have several folds both
    vertically and horizontally. Paper may have minimal dirt, or possible colour smudging. Paper itself is still relatively
    crisp and floppy. There are no tears into the border area, although the edges do show slight wear. Corners also show
    wear but not full rounding.
    FINE: F A note which shows considerable circulation, with many folds, creases and wrinkling. Paper is not excessively
    dirty but may have some softness. Edges may show much handling, with minor tears in the border area. Tears may
    not extend into the design. There will be no center hole because of excessive folding. Colours are clear but not very
    bright. A staple hole or two would not be considered unusual wear in a Fine F note. Overall appearance is still on the
    desirable side.
    VERY GOOD: VG A well used note, abused but still intact. Corners may have much wear and rounding, tiny nicks, tears
    may extend into the design, some discoloration may be present, staining may have occurred, and a small hole may
    sometimes be seen at center from excessive folding. Staple holes and pinholes are usually present, and the note
    itself is quite limp but NO pieces of the note can be missing. A note in VG condition may still have an overall not
    unattractive appearance.
    GOOD: G A well worn and heavily used note. Normal damage from prolonged circulation will include strong multiple
    folds and creases, stains, pinholes and/or staple holes, dirt, discoloration, edge tears, center hole, rounded corners
    and an overall unattractive appearance. No large pieces of the note may be missing. Graffiti is commonly seen on
    notes in G condition.
    FAIR: FR A totally limp, dirty and very well used note. Larger pieces may be half torn off or missing besides the
    defects mentioned under the Good category. Tears will be larger, obscured portions of the note will be bigger.
    POOR: PR A "rag" with severe damage because of wear, staining, pieces missing, graffiti, larger holes. May have
    tape holding pieces of the note together. Trimming may have taken place to remove rough edges. A Poor note is
    desirable only as a "filler" or when such a note is the only one known of that particular issue.
  2. youngboss1vn

    youngboss1vn Admin

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    Standard International Grading Terminology & Abbreviations

    Country / Grade Uncirculated Extremely Fine Very Fine Fine Very Good Good Poor
    USA & English UNC EF or XF VF F VG G PR
    Brazil (1) FE (3) S (5) MBC (7) BC -8 (9) R UTGeG
    China - - - - - - -
    - - -
    Denmark 0 1 1+ 1 1- 2 3
    I (BFR) II (VZGL) III (SS) IV (S) V (SG) VI (G)
    VII (GS)
    Italy FdS SPL BB MB B M -
    Mishiyo Goku Bihin Bihin
    Futsuhin n/a
    Lithuania (0) NP (1) YP (2) LP (3) P (4) LG (5) G (6) M
    FDC / UNC PR
    Norway 0 1 1+ 1 1- 2 3
    Portugal Novo Soberbo Muito Bo - - - -
    Russia - - - - - - -
    Spain - España Lujo SC, IC or EBC MBC BC - RC MC
    Sweden 0 1 1+ 1 1- 2 -

    Some translations of the abbreviations of the above grading terminology

    France - Republique Francaise Germany - Bundesrepublik Deutschland
    NEUF - New
    BFR - Bankfrisch
    SUP - Superbe
    VZGL - Vorzüglich
    TTB - Tres Tres Beau SS - Sehr Schön
    TB - Tres Beau
    S - Schön
    B - Beau
    SG - Sehr Gur erhalten
    TBC - Tres Bien Conserve G - Gut erhalten
    BC - Bien Conserve GS - Gering erhalten Schlecht
    Italy - Republica Italiana Lithuania - Lietuva (Lietuvos Republika)
    FdS - Fiore di Stampa NP - Nepriekaistingas
    SPL - Spledido YP - Ypatingai Puikus
    BB - Bellissimo
    LP - Labai Puikus
    MB - Molto Bello
    P - Puikus
    B - Bello
    LG - Labai Geras
    M - Mediocre
    G - Geras
    M - Menkas
    Netherlands - Nederland Spain - España
    UNC - Ongecirculeerd EBC - Extraordinariamente Bien Conservada
    PR - Prachtig
    SC - Sin Circular
    ZF - Zeer Frai
    IC - Incirculante
    F - Fraai
    MBC - Muy Bien Conservada
    ZG - Zeer Goed
    BC - Bien Conservada
    G - Goed
    RC - Regular Conservada
    MC - Mala Conservada
    The above grading terminology is probably incomplete. Please submit corrections and new aditions.
    How Many Grades are there for grading world paper money?
    Grades and in-between grades I have written down that are used by collectors and dealers all around the world:
    Poor, Fair, Good, Good+, G-VG, aVG, VG, VG+, VG-F, aFine, Fine, Fine+, F-VF, aVF, VF, VF+, VF-XF,
    aXF, XF(or EF), XF+, XF-AU, aAU, AU, AU+, AU-UNC, aUNC (or UNC-), UNC, Choice UNC, Gem UNC.
    So, how many? Yes, twenty nine (29)! Should we use instead a 29 or 30 grade numerical scale? Wouldn't that
    be easier to remember and use? Probably not, but as you can see to properly grade a note at least 29 grade variations
    are needed and possibly more than 30. Here's a numerical grading scale which could be used internationally:
    10 = UNC
    9 = AU-UNC
    8 = AU
    7 = XF-AU
    6 = XF
    5 = VF-XF
    4 = VF
    3 = F(ine)
    2 = VG
    1 = G(ood)
    0 = PR

    (use + or - signs for more precise grades)

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